“I don’t hear as well as I would like, but I would like to see perfectly.”
A whole group of people have no choice about what to watch in theaters or on TV – they are deaf and hard of hearing people. Those with good hearing can choose between dubbing and subtitling. For deaf and hard of hearing people, subtitles are the only choice. In this context, it is very important to distinguish between interlinguistic and intralinguistic subtitling. The first are adaptations of the film’s dialogues into another language and are aimed at hearing people who do not know or do not know the original language of the film. Intralinguistic subtitles are the written expression of the entire audio content of an audiovisual work, including verbal, non-verbal and paraverbal aspects. They are aimed at deaf audiences.
Thus, it is clear that more attention and compliance with numerous requirements is required to create subtitles for the deaf: character identification; lexical correspondence; between spoken and written language (deaf people usually lip-read); readability (not very high reading speed) punctuation. Other: paraverbal and non-verbal signs, brackets (indicating descriptive phrases, intonation, tone), etc.